Friday, August 31, 2012

Digital media convergence- Music video

Digital media convergence and Music Video Online

 Penny Constanti- 42443016

Digital media convergence is an expansion in which modern technologies are linked with existing media forms. The sensation of new music video can be carefully understood through its relationship with media convergence and the impact they have upon each other. This is evident through the internet and engines such as YouTube, iTunes and the technological advancements of mobile phones and mp3 players such as the IPod. These devices have allowed for an expansion and mutation of music video from the traditional cable channels such as MTV and VH1. The contemporary development of music video is evident through differing creations, forms and stylistic approaches. This is exemplified by the modernistic aspects of music video, including proteur production, low budget, single shot and the use of hybrid media.

Founded in February 2005 by three former PayPal colleagues, YouTube has become a media convergence phenomenon. Allowing its users to upload, watch and share videos, the software is a key example of how several aspects of media can come together and join as one (Burgess, J. & Green, J (2009) .Showing aspects of film, music, radio and television, and even allowing for world events to be streamed live, YouTube is continually expanding its outlet and convergence on Medias. In relation to YouTube and the internet, “The music video has gone from being centralized in the programming of two or three cable channels to be being diffused all over the internet”(Austerlitz, S. 2007. pg 221). YouTube has facilitated to the development of music video and the resultant new and diverse features the modern audience is seeing.

Proteur production and low budget video reflect some of the key advancements being made in music videos. These economically beneficial video forms have been common among indie-rock and electronica bands. Focusing on the sounds of the band, “These videos were discrete artworks appended to the song” and “with their arrival, the music video ushered in a new golden era of artistic fecundity” ”(Austerlitz, S. 2007. pg 211). These developments in music video and the power of low budget video can be represented through upcoming Australian Band Gypsy and the Cat and their song “Time to wander”.

Another example of proteur production is Ok Go’s treadmill clip for “Here it goes again”. The usefulness of watching the clip is to understand the immense viewing the video has received and to understand the effectiveness that can be associated with Protuer production and low budget video. (Barker.D.2010.). It’s also significant to see the videos influence on other individuals and the several covers that have been made in its fame.

The use of a single shot video emphasises a similar filmic format and is a common feature of new music video. These single shot videos can also be associated with live acoustic performances, as seen by the work of Vincent Moon. An award winning filmmaker from Paris, Vincent moon has been travelling the world creating videos for a French online magazine, La Blogotheque. Moon uses a camera in hand to create these single shot videos and to capture the essence and captivating moment that musicians create. A significant aspect of Moon’s work is its spontaneity, “He doesn’t plan his shots ahead of time, and prefers to catch the artists he records unrehearsed” (Beckett, C. 2010, pg 1).This can emphasised through his video of English band “The Kooks”, and their song “Ooh la”

As the band starts playing, a shot of the ground slowly pans on to singer Luke Pritchard’s face. As the band amble up a street in Paris, the nature of the video is brought to life, as the public firstly stroll past, there is no recognition of the band. The effectiveness of Moons takeaway shows is seen in which the videos are not a glossy representation of the music, they are simply the band playing a stripped down version of their song. The videos show the importance of a bands sound, and their ability to produce music, and through the internet, these videos can be posted online, for all the public to enjoy.

Another modernistic adaptation to music video is the influence of hybrid media. Hybrid media is the combination of numerous media such as animation, typography, photography, cinematography and graphic (Manovich, L. 2007). The artistic features of hybrid media not only visually appeal to the audience, but allow a band to create a story and meaning through the availability of text, graphic and animation. This convergence of different mediums has been adopted by several music video directors. Linkin Park’s “New Divide”, directed by Joe Hahn, exemplifies this idea of live cinematic film overlayed with graphic. Using pure moving image and a remixability of graphic, the video shows how a convergence of Medias can seamlessly blend together.

Through the technological advancements of the modern world, media convergence is continually increasing the availability and portability of music videos. Through the convergence of music and video with mp3 players like the iPod and phones such as the Iphone, individuals can now have a portable music shop with them at all times. Allowing people to watch and listen to music videos at any time of the day, these to the growth of music video. They also consent to a broader audience that was unavailable through television cable channels such as MTV. (Austerlitz, S. 2007. pg 221). This furthermore emphasises the positive impact media convergence has had on music video

The phenomenon of digital media convergence has significantly contributed to the development and success of music video. As seen by hybrid media, the convergence of graphic, animation and typography has allowed many directors to create artistic music videos that contribute to a songs integrity. In contrast however, it’s evident that superior technology doesn’t result in a more effective music video, as exemplified by the power of proteur production and low budget videos. The progression and consumption of mp3 players and mobile phones continues to show the influence media convergence has on the accessibility of music video. Conclusively it’s evident that the advancements of media convergence have allowed for a greater link and success for music video.


Jenkins, H. 2006, Convergence Culture: Where new and old media collide, New York University Press, pp. 2-3

Burgess, J. & Green, J. 2009, YouTube: Digital media and society series, Polity Press Cambridge, pp.1-14

Beckett, C. 2010, The World of Vincent Moon, Union Docs,

Manovich, L. 2007, Understanding Hybrid Media,,

Barker, D. 2010, Internet saved the video star: The renaissance of the music video, in metro magazine, vol 160, pp.140-144

Austerlitz, S. 2007, Money for nothing: A history of the music video from the Beatles to the white stripes, New York/London: Continuum, pp. 221-223


Gypsy and the cat- Time to Wander

Ok Go- Here it goes again

The Kooks- Ooh La

Link Park- New Divide

Digital Media Convergence Essay- Music Video: Maureen Elvy 42885914

Digital Media Convergence Essay- Assessment 1- Maureen Elvy, Student Number: 42885914
Digital media convergence can be described as the merging of technologies for media consumption and according to Jenkins (2006:2) consists of the “the flow of content across multiple media platforms”. A combination of innovative technologies involving the internet, personal hand held devices such as the iPhone and applications are contributing factors in a shift in how society is now consuming media. This is evident in the world of the music video. Some academics would argue that the consumption of music video on Australian television is as strong today as it was in the 1980’s, however the choice to obtain multiple services on a single platform or device, or multiple devices for a single platform is revolutionising the digital music video and changing the online music video from the ground up. Online music and music video is bringing the artist closer to the fans, reinventing how music videos are created, marketed and giving the unheard a voice.

Internationally it is the view of some that the music video is slowly dying as the home of music video MTV adopts more and more Reality TV content.  Short of its glory days of the big spectacular music video production being aired on the television, music video has joined the realms of the online virtual world. In order to survive it has been forced to adapt to changing trends in technology, culture and application. It has moved from the small screen to an even smaller screen of personal hand held devices such as Mp3 players, smart phones and tablets. This has not come at the detriment of the consumers but on the contrary has enabled easy consumption of Music TV with the creation of these multiple platform portable devices. Having functions that provide the consumer amongst other things an “anywhere on the go TV in your pocket” (Orgad 2009: 197), they enable easy access of content that would have been restricted to traditional television viewing. Music Video’s suitability for the even smaller screen may be due to its length. It is able to be viewed on demand quickly and easily on the massively successful platform of YouTube, amongst others.  A multitude of Music Videos are able to be downloaded at the touch of people’s fingertips, transcending culture and global position.

YouTube and other platforms are also presenting a brewing stirring pot between the ‘commercial marketplace’ and the ‘marketplace of ideas’ (Dee 2008:8). Marketing and music executives are racking their brain to come up with new ways to embrace the new forms of media and technology of change. In order to remain they are embracing the revolution that is media convergence. Online parodies on YouTube of high production music videos are marketing gold and have the ability to become an instant online hit. They can boost the exposure of a song rapidly across the globe unlike any other medium. Millions of people can view and be exposed to the song at no extra cost to the music and marketing companies. An example of this is the highly successful ‘What makes you beautiful’ Music Video by One Direction. It has an astounding 221,438,169 views (as of 29.08.12). It’s Parody by ‘No direction’ has even had hits equivalent to nearly ¾ of the population of Australia at 17,128,735 (as of 29.08.12). Combined the global exposure to this song is incredible and what bands and executives dream of. Who’s to say if the original music video clip helped promote the parody or the parody helped promote the original video clip, regardless many eyes have been watching and ears listening.

Online Music Video as a part of media convergence is also having revolutionary effects on the artist within the music industry.  It is creating opportunities, from artists been exposed to record label executives and being signed, to bridging the gap between unsigned artist and fans.  It is allowing artists to retain control of ‘ownership and rights’ by cutting out the middle man (Sen 2010: 1). In conjunction with other platforms such as forums, YouTube comments and even twitter artists are able to communicate directly with fans. Due to the no need for Hi-Fi production for Music Video on YouTube artists are able to make cheap Low-Fi productions. This allows exposure to musical artists of all economical positions, opening up an array of material that may not have been on offer to the public.  An example of this is the hilariously simple music video ‘Here It Goes Again’ by ‘OK Go’. It is the epitome of Low- Fi creation, exposure and marketing. It brings the artist to the audience and the audience to the artist. With an iTunes link attached to their particulars on YouTube the public are able to purchase the track.

Media convergence has changed multiple aspects of the music video industry. It has broadened the way we consume music video. No longer are we tied to a stationary device burdened by inconvenience. Innovations in technology with internet, hand held devices and applications have created an on demand online viewing experience that has revolutionised our music consumption culture. We can get the type of music that we want whenever we want.  The merging of audio visual music and internet platforms such as YouTube has created opportunities in all areas of the music industry. Consumers are now spoiled with choice with a variety of music that transcends cultural and global positioning. Record labels and marketing agencies are living the dream when there artists are subject to online global exposure at little or no extra cost to them. Some artists are benefiting with the return of the reigns of control in music and music video production, exhibition and distribution. The little artists now have a voice and opportunity to compete against the large record companies.  It is an exciting time for music culture and thanks to media convergence many eyes are glued to the online music video.

Reference List
Dee, J. (2008), ‘Fingerprints, grace notes and YouTube: the problematic relationship between convergence and copyright laws’, Conference Papers- The National Communication Association, downloaded 27 Aug 2012

Jenkins, H. (2006), Convergence Culture, New York, New York University Press, pp 1-24.

Orgad, Shani. (2009), ‘Mobile Tv: Old and new in the construction of an emergent technology convergence’, The Journal of Research into New Media, vol 15. No 2:197-214 downloaded 28 Aug 2012.

Sen, A. (2010), ‘Music in the digital age: musicians and fans around the world “come together” on the net’, Global Media Journal: American Edition, Vol 9, No 16:1-25 downloaded 27 Aug 2012

No Direction (2011), ‘What Makes You Beautiful’, Barely Political

OK Go (2009), ‘Here It Goes Again’, Emimusic,

One Direction (2011), ‘What Makes You Beautiful’, Sony Music Entertainment

Online music video

Discuss the phenomenon of digital media convergence in relation to Music Video Online
Georgia Turner - 42858100

Convergence “transgresses the accepted boundaries of media formations” (Russo, 2009)

Remember the rage of having to wake up really early in the morning to see your favorite artists new music video on television? Close your eyes and imagine a world where you can sit down at your laptop, open up the Internet and be one click away from viewing any video you can possibly imagine at any time of day. Now open them… welcome to the Age of Convergence. “Media convergence is the process whereby new technologies are accommodated by existing media” (Dwyer, 2010).  This essay will discuss the impact of convergence on the music industry and the rise of music video. Furthermore, the use of online media platforms in globally distributing and promoting audiovisual content will be examined.

Nowadays, online music video is a means of global music distribution, which promotes the music industry in a positive way, however initially, online music streaming had a negative effect on the industry. Before media convergence, control lay in the hands of a few record labels whose profits relied on their exclusivity of delivery (Coats, Freeman, Given, & Rafter, 2000). However, the introduction of digital distribution and more specifically, the Internet, as Coats et al. predicted, has had a severe impact on such companies. In addition to copyright issues, online streaming has negatively impacted the sales of music. Once a particular CD has been uploaded to the Internet, it can be reproduced at no cost and circulated around the world for free access to all Internet users (Balaban, 2001). Thus, the Internet deems hardcopy music sales obsolete causing a huge loss of profit for the industry giants. This online music phenomenon began in 1993 when ‘Internet Underground Music Archive’ (IUMA) was created by college students in an attempt to spread their own music at low-cost (Coats et al., 2000). A vast array of music streaming websites followed this initial method of music distribution but none were as successful as YouTube.

YouTube has impacted all media industries since 2005 through its availability, immediacy and flexibility (Hilderbrand, 2007). The sites online nature, in addition to its freedom of use without any sign-up, made YouTube an extremely popular form of entertainment throughout the world. In the instantaneous entertainment industry of today, users want immediate, on-demand availability of music, video, television and information. YouTube provides exactly that, a factor which has made the site the “revolutionary, viral phenomenon” (Hilderbrand, 2007) it is today. By providing online video streaming of all variants of media content, YouTube has become the “go-to website for finding topical and obscure streaming video clips” (Hilderbrand, 2007). This freedom of access has transformed the music industry both negatively, as discussed before and positively. In terms of profits, YouTube music videos often include a link to the song in the 'iTunes store' where consumers may buy individual songs, using YouTube as an advertising strategy. In addition to user-friendly access, YouTube allows the user to create an account for free and post videos of their own, thus expanding the sites vast collection. This feature allows amateur musicians to promote themselves, creating a global audience at no cost (Coats et al., 2000; Jenkins, 2006). Early exposure allows the musician to develop a fan base, which can exponentially increase with the more videos they post. Many artists have become ‘YouTube stars’ (Hilderbrand, 2007) in this way and by the time they are supported by the music industry, their fans are ready and willing to listen to or purchase their work.

Christina Grimmie is an example of a self-developed artist who went from low quality bedroom recordings to having over 1.5 million subscribers to her YouTube channel and near 717 million video views. ‘Team Grimmie’, her online fan base have given this artist the support and recognition she needed to become noticed within the wider music industry and she is now recording her own music and going on concert tours both as a supporting act and as her own artist.

-  2009, Christina records in a poor lit room with no audio editing or enhancement at zero cost

 -       2011, Christina performs her own written song in a high cost Music Video produced with actors, audio and visual editing, sound and video crews

Established artists also use online music video streaming to promote their work. Often, artists will use Music Video to enhance the overall story of their song through intricate production using acting, editing and visual performance. This elaborate approach conveys the huge impact that music video has had on the simple audio recording of music. The online posting of such a music video allows fast dispersal of such works through ‘linking’ the videos URL to friends via social networking sites, email and online video sharing (Balaban, 2001). Lady Gaga offers many examples of elaborate movie-like music videos, creating extravagant spectacles to accompany her songs.

Thus, “online video produced by professionals and amateurs converge across a continuum of platforms” (Russo, 2009). YouTube sanctions this through the promotion of established artists as well as the self-exposure of new artists (Coats et al., 2000) who find themselves on the same side during the move towards convergent media (Russo, 2009).
With the ever-increasing development of technology, the media industry, like many others, is forced to adapt and change in order to keep up with its audience’s preferences. The need of todays nomadic society to have access to media platforms on the go is complemented by the introduction of multi-media devices such as smart phones, mp3 players, portable radios and the list goes on. Across such a vast array of technology, convergence of media forms has occurred. The convergence of television, music, mobile phones and Internet is one combination of such a merge. Mobile TV or Internet access on phone phones complies with the nomadic nature of media consumers by giving users “private and personal viewing” (Orgad, 2009). This notion of mobile TV or media access allows the user to view content wherever and whenever is most convenient for them (Orgad, 2009). The user can view any source of media from their pocket at any given moment, highlighting the relevance of Internet use in our everyday lives.

Convergence within the music industry is a means of necessary change with online music video shaping music production and distribution throughout the world. The introduction of the Internet caused a metamorphosis in the way consumers access, share and create music media, handing control over to the audience. This element of freedom and opportunity allow amateur artists to become known in the global sphere, expanding the once exclusive industry to a broad spectrum of musical talent. Furthermore, music video has enhanced the communication of musical intent through the addition of visual storytelling. Online music video streaming, accompanied by multi-media technology has allowed the enrichment of music as well as its instantaneous, infinite supply to consumers anywhere, anytime.


Balaban, D. (2001). The Battle of the Music Industry: The Distribution of Audio and Video Works via the Internet, Music and more. Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal, 12(1).
Coats, W. S., Freeman, V. L., Given, J. G., & Rafter, H. D. (2000). Streaming into the Furute: Music and Video Online. Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 285.
Dwyer, T. (2010). Media Convergence McGraw Hill, Berkshire.
Hilderbrand, L. (2007). Youtube: Where Cultural Memory and Copyright Converge. Film Quarterly, 61.
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. NY University Press.
Orgad, S. (2009). Mobile TV: Old and new in the construction of an emergent technology. Convergence, 15(2), 197-214.
Russo, J. L. (2009). User-Penetrated Content: Fan Video in the Age of Convergence. Cinema Journal, 48, 125-130. 

Online media content used

Christina Grimmie - 2009 "Me singing Dear Friend by Stacie Orrico"
Christina Grimmie - 2011 "Advice (Official Music Video)"
Lady Gaga- 2010 "Telephone ft. Beyonce"